June 20, 2017

Many of the "brain enhancers" of the past turned out to be just addictive drugs, which had little effect on intelligence. It is enough to see the above examples to show that, in this unbridled search for the easiest way to mental development, a lot of bullshit was sold as a panacea. So what has changed? A lot of things. Modafinil uk, modafinil buy uk

In the 19th century, Freud had to develop his mind theories (with his successes and mistakes) treating people's guns like a black box, whose exact functioning was a mystery, immune to any kind of study. Today, there are advanced techniques of brain mapping that allow you to see what happens in people's minds in a real time when they are under the influence of a particular drug. No wonder the 1990s were christened "the decade of the brain." In some cases, science is able to explain step by step the molecular reactions of certain remedies in the human body. Modafinil uk, modafinil buy uk

Modafinil uk, modafinil buy uk. Another thing: as medicine as a whole is galloping forward, people are living more and more. With old age, typical cognitive problems - such as memory loss and difficulty of reasoning - arise. Therefore, the pharmaceutical industry is very interested in creating medicines that can prolong or restore brain health. Imagine what will happen when someone invents a drug that makes up for the mind what Viagra did for sex. It will be a revolution. And when it does, young people will also want to try out the remedy and see what it can do.

Modafinil uk, modafinil buy uk. Incidentally, this is already happening. Want an example? Alzheimer's disease. It is a terrible degenerative disease, in which plaques of a substance called beta-amyloid start to form in the brain. The result is a significant loss of the ability to generate memories. As the disease progresses, it ends up leading to dementia and eventually death. Several drugs are being tested in hopes of at least reducing the impact of the disease by helping to strengthen memory-related brain systems. And the most promising are the ampaquins, which seem to reinforce neuron responses to a neurotransmitter called glutamate (before you ask: no, it's not the same glutamate as Aji-No-Moto seasoning and Chinese cuisine). There are not enough tests yet to prove that amphokinins actually improve brain function. But it seems so - and there are already people to test this class of drugs also in healthy people, to see if they acquire super memory.

Other intelligence drugs have already been tested on humans - and are already on the market. Like donepezil, which was also developed to treat Alzheimer's. In a study of airplane pilots, it actually showed an effect on memory. Two groups of volunteers were tested. And those who had taken donepezil were more likely to recall, a month later, the information they had received the drug. Modafinil uk, modafinil buy uk

Modafinil uk, modafinil buy uk. Scientists are discovering that older substances can also have positive effects on intelligence. Like a drug called piracetam, which manipulates, in a way not yet fully understood, neurotransmitters in the brain - possibly including glutamate. Piracetam is well known to doctors and considered quite safe. So much so that, in some countries, it is neither marketed as medicine, but as a dietary supplement (in UK, it can only be bought with a prescription). Its users say it helps "lubricate" the brain by stimulating the microcirculation of blood inside the organ.

Sometimes the contribution can come from where it is least expected. Look at this: an antiallergic called dimebolin, which was created by Russian scientists to combat the so-called hay fever (a type of allergic rhinitis), seems to be an exceptional mental enhancer. Preliminary studies suggest that it improves the performance of volunteers in cognitive tests, in addition to making them more alert and alert. Drugs like this are called antihistamines because they inhibit the action of histamines - substances that control the immune system's response (hence its relation to allergy) and also act as neurotransmitters. In the brain, there are several types of histamine receptor. Depending on which one is influenced by the drug, different effects can happen. That is why many antiallergics, especially the older ones, caused drowsiness. But newer drugs, which exploit only one type of histamine receptor, may end up having the opposite effect, improving the individual's attention and disposition - and even making him a little smarter. Modafinil uk, modafinil buy uk

All these remedies were created for other purposes. But there are already drugs being developed specifically for the purpose of brainwashing healthy people. This research is still very much in the beginning and some pharmaceutical companies that were founded to focus exclusively on this market and Are having difficulty keeping up. What seems to be further ahead is the American Helicon, whose mission is to produce medicines aimed at improving the memory of healthy people. So far, none of the compounds tested by the company have reached a stage of advanced clinical trials with large numbers of people in humans. But why so much trouble? Because today the main way to develop new drugs is to test them on living things (first animals, then people). It's just that it's much easier to get tested for a drug that will tinker with the brain if it is aimed at sick people than trying to do that same test on a lot of healthy people. Still, as the modafinil hit shows, there is a demand for remedies that improve the brain. And even if it's a turtle's tail, Helicon's research will certainly bear fruit in the coming years. Intellectual doping is here to stay. And it will change the world. Modafinil uk, modafinil buy uk

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"Of course, ethical discussions have started to emerge about this," says Alysson Muotri, a Brazilian molecular biologist who works at the University of California. It works specifically with the phenomenon of neurogenesis - the production of new neurons in the brain, one of the ways in which intelligence pills can improve people's brain performance. For Muotri, there is no problem in developing and testing intelligence drugs. "If a scientist finds that using these medicines improves his performance, I do not see anything against him (he takes the medicine). After all, the goal is to make discoveries that benefit humanity. "But another, quite different thing is to allow the pharmaceutical industry to freely promote these pills. For one simple reason: the side effects. The most commonly used stimulants today, such as Ritalin and amphetamines, already have well-known - and serious - side effects.

The risks range from heart problems to hallucinations, not to mention the great possibility of the user getting addicted. But even the most recent, though apparently less dangerous, drugs are not risk-free. Modafinil, for example, which was introduced as a drug virtually free of side effects, had problems with the US government in 2006 when the manufacturer tried to release its use in children to treat cases of attention deficit disorder. It has been found that, in a few cases, Modafinil can cause extremely aggressive skin irritations. It's not a bitch. It is a disease called Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, which may require hospitalization and lead to death. The US government considered this risk too high and did not release modafinil to children. And the truth is, no one knows what the long-term effects of this and other drugs are. In the short term, they do seem to give some advantage to their users. But what happens after 10, 15 years of use? No study has ever reached maturity, so the answers are yet to come - at the same time that thousands of people conduct the same test, without any control, in their own brains. But early research on animals is showing worrying results. Some of the remedies seem to increase neurogenesis, that is, they accelerate the growth of neurons in the brain. But this is not necessarily good. "There are some neurogenesis situations that are bad. Epilepsy, for example, increases neurogenesis. But new neurons from faulty connections. Modafinil uk, modafinil buy uk

That is: their birth more disturbs than it helps, "says Muotri. Decreased sleep, which is a common effect of stimulants (especially if taken at night), can help turn the nights cracking of studying or finishing very important jobs. But studies done in mice point out that sleep deprivation causes damage to the hippocampus, part of the brain that - among other things - coordinates the functioning of memory. And this happens fast: 3 consecutive days without sleep are already enough to produce structural changes in the brain. And when we talk about the long term, things get even riskier. The continued use of stimulants can alter the structure and functioning of the brain, so as to cause depression, increase anxiety and, as a result, make the person dumber. Yeah. In attempting to create a super-intelligent generation of humans, we run the risk of ending up with 6 billion miles. But even if all these fears prove unfounded, there will still be a social concern. And she might be the worst of them all. Imagine the following scenario. Advances in science lead to the creation of a drug that increases intelligence and presents no risk or side effect, whether short or long term. It's the perfect pill. But, like all the inventions of the pharmaceutical industry, it is expensive. How are people who do not have the money to buy the drug, or just do not want to take it? How to promote a fair contest, on the college entrance examination or at Among people who take and do not take pills for the brain? The quest for the elevation of human intelligence may end up creating two classes of people, which would bring all kinds of social problems and increase inequality among people. Or, on the contrary, it could reduce it. A study done at King's College in London found that modafinil works differently in different people. "Our results indicate that high IQ may limit the detection of the positive effects of the drug," said Delia C. Randall, author of the study. Translating: it does more to less intelligent people. Therefore, the pills of intelligence could bring the less favored intellectually to the average population. And, instead of creating a social gulf, help reduce inequality. Whatever happens, one thing is certain. All the drugs of intelligence, both existing and developing, have one feature in common: they simply intensify the brain's functioning, that is, give it a little more power to do what it already knows. The remedies do not add new abilities to the mind. And by making people more focused on what they need to do, they fatally reduce the time they spend silently, daydreaming, with their heads idle and open to seemingly irrelevant ideas - the elements that all experts agree on are at the root of creativity Human. Does the world really need anything that makes people close in on themselves to work even harder? Modafinil uk, modafinil buy uk

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