Despite the peculiarity of each child, some characteristics are inherent to most of them. Impatience and lack of attention to activities that do not captivate them enter this group. But it is important to be attentive, as a thin line separates the normal behavior of ADHD (Attention Deficit Disorder and Hyperactivity) symptoms - a type of neurobiological disorder caused by malfunctioning neural structures that causes inattention, restlessness, and impulsivity. Ritalin uk, modafinil uk
In the studies, English teacher Rafael Garcia Ribeiro, 22, was never undisciplined. Though restless, he had an enviable bulletin, full of good grades. But by the time he went to college entrance a second time, the lack of concentration began to become more apparent and become an obstacle. "I could not focus on my studies, I could stay focused for a long time. I decided to make an appointment with a psychiatrist. He gave me a questionnaire, asked me questions about my daily life, and noticed that I had signs of hyperactivity. He diagnosed me as having ADHD, "recalls Rafael. Ritalin uk, modafinil uk
As it is a neuropsychiatric disease, Dr. Marcelo Gomes, Director of the Therapeutic Area of the pharmaceutical company Novartis, explains that there is no biological marker that identifies the disease, it is only possible to make the clinical diagnosis, based on the daily analysis. "The diagnosis of ADHD is made by information from the patient's routine. If they are children, we collect these data with parents and in schools. Based on this information, together with the questionnaire done in the office, we discovered whether or not there is the disorder, "he says. In the questionnaire, patients need to fit into six or more situations of inattention or symptoms of hyperactivity described. Ritalin uk, modafinil uk
In the treatment, besides the psychological accompaniment, also is used medication with the base of methylphenidate, chemical stimulant. Here in Brazil, the only medication with this substance is Ritalin, from the pharmaceutical company Novartis. Prices can range from £19 to £50 depending on the amount of mg and tablets.
The stimulants present in the drug increase the release of dopamine (an important natural neurotransmitter precursor of adrenaline) in certain circuits of the central nervous system, helping to correct deficient functioning and aiding in the control of hyperactivity. Ritalin uk, modafinil uk
After being diagnosed, Rafael started taking Ritalin. In the first week, he took 10 mg of the drug, dividing the tablet in half, until he became accustomed to the side effects, which included insomnia, nausea, and headache. Since at the time the teacher was 90 kg 1.90 m, it was necessary to increase the dose. "In a few months I started taking two tablets," recalls Rafael. Ritalin uk, modafinil uk
Rafael noticed a reasonable improvement in concentration. He became more attentive to studies and less anxious - although the remedy was not intended for this purpose. "I do not know if it has a relationship, but I even lost weight. The anxiety was controlled and, with that, the will to eat passed, "he recalls. Weight loss may be related to the medication, as the possible reduction in appetite is described in the package insert.
There are many controversies about the consequences this drug can bring to the patient in the long run. The main complaint about the drug is that, because it is a psychostimulant, it can end up addicting. According to the psychologist Roseli Caldas, from Abrapee (Association of School and Educational Psychology), artificial stimulation desensitizes the search for pleasures in daily life, provoking the continuous search for the artificial pleasure produced by the drug. "In addition, methylphenidate can cause adverse reactions in the central nervous system, such as psychosis, hallucinations, convulsions, drowsiness, anxiety, and even a desire for suicide," says Caldas. The most commented reaction, which eventually dubbed "drug of obedience" Ritalin, is the zombie effect it can cause. A kind of apathy or lethargy. Rafael, however, never felt that way. Ritalin uk, modafinil uk
Gomes says that tranquility is often confused with the zombie effect, but is a reflection of the drug's action by controlling the child's hyperactivity and focusing on a specific activity. "The child is at full throttle. After being medicated, it "diminishes" this effusiveness. This is not to say that it interfered with the child's personality but only brought it to normal. If there is interference, we suggest that the medication be discontinued, "he adds.
The only side effects that Rafael remembers happened in the first two days. "I felt a good feeling, a serenity almost like a hallucination, but it passed quickly. Then I became more electric for the activities and I had little insomnia. What I remember most is the sick stomach and sickness, "he says. The effects are common and described in the package leaflet. When he stopped medicating, the professor confesses that he missed the medication, but not because of chemical necessity. "I was once again disorganized," he says. Ritalin uk, modafinil uk
The neuropediatra Marcelo Gomes and the psychiatrist Dr. Paulo Mattos, coordinator of the Attention Deficit Studies Group, share the same opinion: the dependence of stimulants occurs when they are used improperly, not prescribed by the doctor. "Correct intake greatly lowers the potential for addiction and still protects against the use of illicit substances," adds Mattos.
The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), the US Federal Police's narcotics agency, points out that the use of methylphenidate is legal in the treatment of ADHD, but there are records indicating that increased use of methylphenidate in therapy increases in parallel with number of adolescents and young adults who abuse (and are not prescribed) ritalin. According to DEA data, approximately 3,601 emergency room visits in 2010 were related to the indiscriminate use of methylphenidate, and that 186 deaths were linked to the use of the drug. Ritalin uk, modafinil uk
Backed by data from the University of Utah Science and Genetics Research Center, Dr. Luiz Alberto Chaves de Oliveira, Coordinator of Drug Policies in the State of São Paulo, states that 30% to 50% of young people in treatment by chemical addiction reported having abused methylphenidate, since the effects are similar to that of cocaine, which is also stimulant.
On the official DEA website, there is a comparison between the effects of methylphenidate and those of cocaine and amphetamines, followed by the warning "abuse of this substance has been documented among chemical dependents. They dissolve ritalin tablets in water to inject into the veins. When injected, the components block blood vessels, causing serious damage to the lungs and retina. " Ritalin uk, modafinil uk
Despite disagreeing with the association and ensuring that methylphenidate is not similar to cocaine, Gomes says that people with ADHD are at increased risk of drug abuse, but points out: "because of a neurological issue, not related to the use of the medication. On the contrary, treatment reduces the risk of addiction, "he argues.
Other research from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the National Institute of Mental Health (NMH) in 2009 brings more scary data. The risk of sudden death for adolescents taking ritalin is ten to 14 times higher than for those who have never been medicated. Ritalin uk, modafinil uk
Against the problems it seeks to attack, ritalin is effective and helps control the symptoms of who actually has ADHD. "The drug is meant to be used by people with ADHD problems, not by anyone who wants to have concentration. And even the patient with the disorder, if present permanent side effect, should have the medication suspension immediately, "reinforces the neuropsychiatry, Marcelo Gomes. Ritalin uk, modafinil uk
In a study conducted by the National Institute of Mental Health, MTA (Multimodal Treatment Assessment), which in free translation stands for Multimodal Treatment Evaluation, the drug presented good results in the treatment of children with ADHD. During the research, 579 children were separated into four groups: 1) only received medication treatment, 2) treatment based on psychotherapy, 3) underwent cognitive-behavioral treatment with psychiatrists and received medication, and 4) received treatment only with pediatricians, without medication. The groups that presented the best results regarding learning were the 1st and 2nd.
The English teacher Rafael evaluates that he has had good results with the medication. Carrier of ADHD, he was able to improve concentration and, consequently, performance in studies. "I could sit for long hours studying. The dedication brought me good results, I was called to the second phase of the college entrance exam, "he added. Ritalin uk, modafinil uk
Another research, from the American Academy of Pediatrics, followed for 10 years the performance of 112 children and adolescents with ADHD in the age group of 6 to 18 years who used methylphenidate. When re-evaluated, 83 youth who were treated with the stimulant were less likely to develop depressive disorders, anxiety, and disturbed behavior.
The major problems related to the use of ritalin are in misuse and negligence in diagnosis. Generally, psychiatrists and teachers start from a stereotyped analysis based on common sense: if you are restless, you have ADHD; if you're distracted, too. Many do not use the DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) to diagnose the disorder. There is the error. When the analyzes are done erroneously, the patient is given to Ritalin UK without even needing it. Ritalin uk, modafinil uk
And one fact draws attention to the possible misdiagnoses: the explosion in drug sales. In eight years (from 2000 to 2008), the annual marketing of Ritalin boxes increased from 71 thousand to 1,147 million, without accounting for the demands resold clandestinely in the country. This number places as the UK as the second largest consumer of methylphenidate in the world, losing only to the United States. However, it is worth remembering that Ritalin UK is the only drug for ADHD treatment marketed in UK, which contributes to the great consumption in the country.
For some physicians, this growth is due to increased access to diagnosis and knowledge about the disorder. "I see this increase in a desirable way. According to IBGE data, up to 2010, there were 924,732 people with ADHD, but only 184,481 were under treatment. If sales continue to increase, all carriers will have access to the medication, "says psychiatrist Paulo Mattos. Ritalin uk, modafinil uk
The World Health Organization recognizes the disorder and, together with the American Psychiatric Association, estimates that approximately 4% of adults and 5% to 8% of children and adolescents worldwide have ADHD. In addition, entities estimate that at least two children in a classroom of 40 students are carriers.
But some psychologists believe that increased consumption is a reflection of a medicalization policy. Psychologist Roseli Caldas says that such sales mirror an immediate society, which seeks quick and efficient results in medicine. "Medicalization is like a masking of social issues since assigning diseases to individuals exempts us from seeking in social, economic and political relations the causes and solutions to the problems of society. In the case of education, it is easier to diagnose children than to try to understand which factors could be responsible for lack of attention or impulsivity, "emphasizes the psychologist. Ritalin uk, modafinil uk
Recently, the Federal Council of Psychology launched a campaign with the following slogan: "If you think your son is too arrogant, stay calm. He's just being a kid, he does not have ADHD. "
Contrary to minimizing the concern that should be expended with the diagnosis of the disorder, there are rumors that Novartis Pharmaceuticals campaigns at schools to warn about the risks of ADHD and to advise on ways to identify it. For many, this would justify the greater amount of diagnostics and, consequently, the greater use of Ritalin UK in recent years. During an interview given to the site Drauzio Varella, the existence of such campaigns was vehemently denied by the pharmaceutical. Ritalin uk, modafinil uk
In 2010, however, Novartis and ABDA (Association of Attention Deficit) promoted the "Attention Teacher" contest, which aimed to "help educators better understand and deal with ADHD." To bring the price of £7 thousand, it was necessary to present the best proposals for inclusion of ADHD patients in the classroom.
In addition to the value, the schools would win a kit containing a champagne, an Inclusion Project School Certificate, and a trophy. The project leader would nominally receive support to participate in a National Congress in the area of education, "contemplating passage, lodging, and registration in the maximum amount of £4,000.00." Three schools were drawn.
Novartis denied any involvement with educational projects in and out of schools, although the project seeks to aid in the recognition and conduct of the disorder and the official page of the contest show the company's signature as one of the responsibilities for the initiative.